Cotter Theory

Cotter Theory

Cotter Theory


Cotter Theory (8 Steps) for Change Management

Kotter’s 8-Step Theory



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The model identifies the eight basic steps of the change process, as Kotter believes that neglecting any of these steps can lead to the failure of the entire initiative:


Step 1: Create need or necessity.

Step two: forming a strong alliance.

Step 3: Create a vision for change.

Step 4: Connect vision.

Step 5: Remove obstacles.

Step 6: Make short-term gains.

Step 7: Build on change.

Step 8: Consolidate changes in the organization’s culture.


– The Cotter Theory was developed by Harvard Business School Professor Dr. John Kotter, a leading intellectual leader in organizational change.

Steps can be simplified as follows:

  1. Make change a pressing requirement by motivating individuals to move forward, move and set realistic goals related to change.
  2. Work to build the change team by selecting the right people and placing them in the right places in the “organization”.
  3. Shaping the vision by making the team work on a simple plan, as well as making it clear to team members that the future of the company or the organization will be different from its past.
  4. Mobilizing support and consent, i.e. engaging the largest possible number of people, and disseminating knowledge about fundamental matters, in simple and clear ways.
  5. Make things take their course, by removing obstacles, then make room for the provision of constructive feedback.
  6. Ensure that quick gains and short-term victories are achieved, which will motivate and contribute to staff’s progress.
  7. Persistence and persistence, knowing that the sustainability of change enhances the credibility of the advocate, which in turn contributes to the improvement of systems, structures and policies.
  8. Create linkages between changing behaviours and organizational success, so that these changes become a well-established custom and authentic culture in the “enterprise” or “company”.


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